# Voltage measurement

Electricity is very hard to imagine because we can not see if a voltage is present or if a current is flowing. If we want water to flow out of a pipe we need some water pressure which is achieved with a water pump. In electricity, our flow is the current, water pressure is the voltage and pump is the battery. This means that the voltage is the cause of the current.

## What is voltage?

Electricity is very hard to imagine because we cannot physically see if voltage is present or if a current is flowing, so we’ll use a water analogy to try and explain how electrical circuits function. Water systems are simple to understand because we can physically see the water and the behavior that it possesses. Now let's take a look at how a water system behaves. It is a well-known physical fact that if water is to flow out of a pipe the water needs to be pressurized, this is mostly achieved by a pump. In electricity, the flow is the current, water pressure is the voltage and the pump is the battery. This means that the voltage instigates the flow of the current like the water pressure is the cause of volume flow rate of water.

## Voltage measurement

The measurement device used for measuring voltage is called a voltmeter. To measure the voltage, also known as the potential difference between two points. The voltmeter is always connected parallel to the circuit (see image). To influence the circuit as little as possible, the input impedance of the voltmeter has to be very high. The typical input impedance of Voltmeter is 10 MΩ.

Measuring voltage is the most basic measurement with Data Acquisition (DAQ) devices because most of the Analog-to-Digital converters (ADC) use voltage as the input value. That's why measuring voltage with DAQ seems simple, right? The answer is yes if we are measuring voltages in the range that is directly supported by the ADC. But when measuring very small voltages in the range of micro-Volts (µV) or very high voltages up to several kilo-Volts (kV), an amplifier is needed to prepare the signal for the AD conversion. For both challenges DEWESoft has the right solution.

On one hand the Low Voltage amplifier (LV and HS-LV) in combination with the 24-bit ADC technology allow for measurements of very low voltages even at high measurement ranges (e.g. µV resolution at a range of ± 10V).

On the other hand, the High Voltage amplifier (HV and HS-HV) allows for direct measurement of voltages up to 1600V DC (1200V DC at HS-module). For measuring voltages higher than 1600 VDC, voltage probes/dividers or voltage transducers can be connected to the instrument.

## Isolation Voltage

When measuring voltage, it’s important to choose the right amplifier range. Using the incorrect amplifier range can destroy the amplifier if the measured voltage exceeds the isolation voltage of the integrated amplifiers in the measurement instruments.

For example, measuring the public grid voltage (230 Vrms / 325Vpeak) with a STG module can destroy the entire module as the isolation voltage is rated at 200 Vpeak for the measurement range below 10V and 300V peak for the measurement range above 10V. In order to measure voltages higher than ±100 V the use of the HV-amplifiers is mandatory.

## Measurement Range

The appropriate selection of the measurement range is essential for high accuracy and reliable measurement results. There are a number of measurement ranges available with every amplifier which can be configured in the DEWESoft X channel setup. If the measurement range is too low, the signal will exceed the input range and errors and channel overloads will appear instead of correct values. On the other hand, if the measurement range is too high, the inaccuracy will be too high to make correct measurements.

The most precise measurement is achieved when the measurement value range coincides with the DAQ amplifier input range. In this case the highest resolution of the measurement is received with the same number of bits used by the AD converter.

Let’s take a look at an easy example measuring voltage. If only one tenth of the AD converter input range is used, the resolution of the outcome will only be one tenth of the actual performance of the AD converter. A 16-bit converter can read 65536 different discrete values, but the measurement will only consist of 6500 different values which is a very low resolution. Measuring a signal from 0 – 7 V will be pointless with a 1200V range (resolution 18 mV) instead a module with 10V range should be used (resolution 0,15 mV) this will yield a much higher measurement resolution. That's why there are diverse modules with different input and measurement ranges available.

## Differences between Peak, Average and RMS voltage

There is a variety of different voltage types, therefore the type of voltage needs to be identified. Voltage types include peak, peak-to-peak, average, RMS, AC and DC. The differences can be better explained using the image below.

The average voltage is, as the name already states, the average value for a certain time period. For pure sinusoidal signals (AC), the average will be zero.

The RMS voltage is the root-mean-square voltage and it is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared function values that define the continuous wave forms. It is the most commonly used value to define the AC voltage at a certain point and produces the same energy as the DC voltage at an ohmic load.

The peak voltage describes the highest voltage at any given period. In the datasheet specifications the peak voltage or the DC voltage of an input is given which means the same. To calculate the RMS value for sine waves, the peak value has to be divided by the square root of 2.

The peak-to-peak ratio shows the amplitude of positive and negative peaks in a period.

The Crest factor is the peak amplitude divided by the RMS value of the waveform.

## Why use isolated amplifiers

Basically, we have three different "types" of DAQ amplifiers: Single ended, differential and isolated amplifiers.

These will be shortly explained below.

Single ended amplifiers have only one input pin because the second input pin is connected directly to the ground. Because of this kind of connection this amplifier is only suitable for measuring floating voltage sources where one output point can be connected to ground. This type of amplifier is easy to use but has two major disadvantages:

• unwanted ground loops,
• the amplifier is not isolated.

A ground loop is an unwanted current from the sensor ground to the instrument ground because of a small difference in the ground potentials. These potential differences are in the micro volt (µV) region, but it can cause a large amount of noise in a measured signal.

An example of the problems that noise in a measurement can cause: a sensor with an output range of 10 V is connected to a single-ended amplifier, it is assumed that a dynamic range of 140 dB is needed. After a simple calculation, it is determined that the allowed potential difference between the sensor and the instrument ground is 1 µV. The solution for the potential difference – isolation of the sensor or the instrument.

The differential amplifier has two inputs separated from ground. This type of amplifier is the most common and amplifies the voltage difference between both inputs. With this technology it is possible to avoid ground loops, but be careful of the common-mode input voltage!

What is common-mode input voltage? One way to describe input common mode voltage (VICM) is that it is seen as the average voltage of the inverting and non-inverting input pins.

Another way to imagine a VICM: It is the voltage level common to both inputs Vin(+) and Vin(-). That means that the differential inputs of DAQ which measure the differences between inputs, the differentially measured value is the small, but common mode input voltage and can still be in hundreds of volts (current measurement with shunts).

Another term which describes differential amplifier inputs is input common-mode voltage range (VICMR). This is the parameter most often used in datasheets and is also the one that should receive the most attention. VICMR defines a range of common-mode input voltages in which the amplifier will work properly and describes how close the inputs can get to either supply rail. This means the potential of the input pins must be between supply voltages (V+ and V-).

## Isolated amplifier

Using isolated amplifiers eliminates the disadvantage of single-ended amplifiers and differential amplifiers. They are independent of ground loops, common mode voltage, short circuits etc. These modules are isolated from the housing and the main board of the measurement device. Therefore, the amplifier will only "see" the difference of the absolute voltage. The high isolation voltage (compared to measurement range) allows safe and reliable operation also at voltage peaks, faults etc. and so enables the usage for an array of different applications.

After a short description of amplifiers, it can be said that the main advantage of differential amplifiers is the lower price. They are perfect for measurements with isolated sensors like strain gauges or current clamps. Differential amplifiers also provide the high-quality measurement for non-isolated sensors, but engineers also need to know sensor behavior like common mode range or isolation to provide correct measurements. On the other hand, isolated signal conditions are more expensive, but a worry-free solution up to isolation voltage.

## Voltage measurement up to 50V

Let's take a look at how a low voltage measurement of up to 50V can be done.

Voltages of up to 50V can be connected directly to a couple of different DEWESoft amplifiers. The amplifiers differ from each other in measurement range, isolation, bandwidth, noise, and extended functionalities.

Every measurement channel supports a number of input voltage ranges. The most precise measurement will be achieved when the input voltage range of the measurement channel is set in such a way that it coincides with the voltage of the measured signal.

The table below shows which DEWESoft amplifiers can be used for the measurement of voltages of up to 50V. The table also contains information about the maximal sampling rate and the bandwidth as well as the available measurement ranges for each amplifier.

The common low-voltage amplifiers allow a sampling rate of up to 200 kS/s per channel with a maximal bandwidth of 75 kHz. The high-speed series (HS) is used for applications that require a high sampling rate and high bandwidths like voltage or current measurement in inverters. The sampling rate of the HS series is 1 MS/s.

After choosing the right amplifier, the signal only needs to be connected to the amplifier.

## Voltage measurement up to 1kV

Measuring voltages higher than 100 V require the use of the Sirius HV or HS-HV module. The Sirius HV module allows measuring voltages of up to 1200V DC while the HS-HV module allows measuring voltages of up to 1600V DC.

The table below shows the two different amplifiers for measuring high voltages with information about the measurement range, sampling rate, bandwidth and isolation.

Just as with low-voltage amplifiers the HS-series is designed for measuring very fast signals like Pulse-width modulation (PWM) regulated voltages of an inverter. Inverters operate at a switching frequency of up to 200 kHz which requires high bandwidth of the whole measurement chain and a high sampling rate. To allow analysis of every kind of application the maximal sampling rate of the HS-HV module is 1 MS/s.

Please ensure that the measured voltage doesn’t exceed the isolation voltage of the amplifier otherwise it can quickly become dangerous. Depending on the level of the voltage, the measurement system can be destroyed and the people around the device are in danger.

## HV vs. HS-HV

To simplify the choice of which one of the modules will fit better to which application, both modules will be used to measure the voltage of a PWM regulated 3-phase servo motor.

The results will then be compared. Both of the module sample rates are set to the maximum, which is 200 kS/s for the HV module and 1 MS/s for the HS-HV module. Coarsely measured data will have some similarities, whereas the real difference will become apparent when the data of the PWM modulated sine wave voltages is further analyzed.

The first difference seen here is for the "chopped" sine. With an HV module (200kS/s) we get an overshoot when the signal "jumps". In the image below the measured motor voltage with the HV module with 200kS/s rate is depicted. The overshoot is clearly seen as little tick at start and stop of the voltage level shift.

When the signal is zoomed into for a better view of the resolution of the single samples, it becomes apparent that the reason for this overshoot is that the sample rate is too low. This happens because of the short rise time of the voltage therefore, there is only one or even no samples on the slope, which causes an error of measurement on the edges of our signal.

The HS-HV module has a higher bandwidth and therefore delivers 5 times more samples for the same measured time period, this means that there is no overshoot on the same measured signal. The cleaner transition is the result of more than one sample on the slope, this delivers a better resolution at the edges of the signal jump.

The problem with the overshoot begins at switching frequencies at around 2 kHz. At higher switching frequencies, it is expected that there will be even more differences between the dual core and the HS modules. To illustrate this a second measurement was done again using the voltage output of the frequency converter, but the frequency was increased to 16 kHz.

The first obvious difference is seen in the bandwidth of the measured signal. With the dual core channel (blue) the frequency starts to damp at 66 kHz and there are absolutely no frequencies above 100 kHz in the measured signal. With the HS module (green) the dampening of the frequencies starts much later than that of the dual core. As seen in the image below the HS module can measure a much wider bandwidth than its dual core counterpart.

When observing both measured signals on the scope we see that the HS module is few microseconds faster than the Dual core module.

The last difference that must be beard in mind when measuring high-frequency voltages are the transients in the signal. The HS module is much better at transient measuring and yields a much better oscillation coverage after every peak.

## Voltage measurement higher than 1 kV

While voltage measurements up to 1kV are relatively simple, things tend to get more complicated when measuring voltages over 1600 VDC because voltage probes/dividers or voltage transducers are necessary which adjust and reduce the voltage to a level that is suitable for the amplifier.

Please be especially careful when using voltage probes or voltage transducers. There are several things which have to be taken into consideration when using voltage probes or voltage transducers.

### Voltages Probes (Voltage Dividers)

There are two different types of voltage probes: The pure resistor voltage probe (for AC and DC measurement) and the resistor-capacitive voltage probe (for AC measurement only). The input impedance of the voltage probe should be as high as possible; therefore, the input resistance should be as high as possible and the input capacitance as low as possible.

There are active, passive and differential voltage probes available.

Passive voltage probes are simple, cheap and robust but have a high input capacitance and problems measuring low voltages.

Active voltage probes have a high input resistance and low input capacitance but need an external power supply. They are a lot more sensitive and more expensive than passive ones.

Differential Voltage Probes: Passive and active voltage probes are single-ended amplifiers with reference to earth. If a differential signal needs to be measured a differential voltage probe must be used.

Voltage probes have no galvanic isolation. If the GND connection is interrupted the full voltage potential is on the measurement device and can destroy the device and can also be dangerous for people in the vicinity.

The function of the voltage probe can be easily explained using a simple resistor voltage probe with the serial connection of two resistors with high resistance.

When using a voltage divider with the same resistance value (R1 = R2), the voltage drop on one resistor will be half of the connected voltage. So, if we want to measure high voltages in the range of up to 2000V, this simple transducer reduces the voltage to 1000V. This is low enough to measure it using a Sirius high voltage module with an input range up to 1200V.

Resistors with too low impedance, compared to a circuit in which voltage is measured will cause a substantial current spike. This current affects the measured circuit and reduces the accuracy of the measurement. The input impedance of the measurement instrument must be 100 to 1000 times higher than the value of R1, otherwise the ratio will change, and the impedance of the measurement instrument must also be taken in account. Another factor that must be considered is the short circuit resistance which is the sum of R1 and R2 – if this value is too low it will cause a short circuit.

When using a voltage probe, the ratio between the input and the output voltage must be calculated and adapted to the “in-channel” setup in the software. This ratio is important because the measured voltage of the measurement device must be multiplied by this ratio to yield the real voltage (Vin in the image).

### Voltages Transducers

Voltage transducers are mainly used to monitor the voltage on the public grid. A voltage transducer is easily explained as a transformer in a no-load operation. On the input (primary) side, a high voltage signal is connected. On the output side of the voltage transducer, we get a low voltage signal which is directly proportional to the input voltage. In public grid operation the secondary voltage is standardized with a level of 100V respective 100V/sqrt(3). The level of 100 V/sqrt(3) is used in uni-polar isolated voltage transducers in star connection. The level of 100V is used in bipolar isolated transducers (line-line voltage).

There are different measurement classes of voltage transducers which describe the accuracy and phase shift of the transducers. The classes span from 0.1 to 3. Class 0,1 means that the accuracy of the measured amplitude is 0,1% and the phase shift is ± 5 minutes. At class 3 the accuracy is 3% and the phase shift ± 120 minutes.

Attention: Never operate voltage transducers with a short-circuit on the secondary side. This creates high currents which will destroy the transducer.

Tip: Voltage dividers and transducers always have a frequency dependent behavior concerning amplitude and phase. Using the DEWESoft sensor editor allows to correct this behavior and increase the accuracy of measurement. See details in the "Current Pro Training" in the chapter "Sensor Editor".

## Voltage measurement with Dewesoft X

Following the theory, a practical example of how the DEWESoft measurement instruments work will follow. The voltage of the public grid will be measured.

The value input voltage of the public grid must be considered to identify what type of amplifier input is needed for the measurement. The public grid in Europe is declared with a value of 230 VRMS but to ensure safe operation of the measurement instruments the peak values of the grid must be considered for the input range. The peak value of the grid in Europe equals the RMS value multiplied by the square root of 2 as seen in the equation below.

.

With a peak value of 325 V we can directly use a Sirius HV-HS module which supports voltage up to 1.6 kV. This means that we can make a simple measurement without any additional voltage dividers or amplifiers and a simple connection as illustrated below.

Channel 4 will be used, which has a Sirius HV-HS amplifier integrated into it. The other channels can be left inactive (“unused” in the software) as they are not relevant to this experiment. The next step is to configure the measurement channel setup in the software as illustrated below.

There are two sides for the set-up window, the left side is the amplifier side and the right side is the sensor side.

On the Amplifier side, we can toggle between the 50 V and 1600 V range. In this example the 1600 V range will be used. a Low-pass filter can also be used to cut off the higher frequencies, but caution should be taken when doing that. If a frequency lower than half of the sample rate is taken it will cut the signal in the measurement range, this might be useful in some applications but mostly this configuration is set by mistake.

The setup on the Sensor side is about selecting which sensor is used for measurement. In this case the voltage is directly measured without a sensor, so only the physical quantity must be set as Voltage and the unit as Volt(V). In this part of the setup, the scaling factor can also be set if sensors or dividers are used for the measurement. In this case it will have the value 1 as the voltage is measured directly and no scaling is done.

For this example, the settings are done so the measurement can be started. By clicking on the “Measure” button. The best way to observe a sinusoidal wave form is with the scope. When the scope is first opened there will be a running wave that is impossible to analyze, this is due to the fact that the software is running in free mode, and the measurement needs to be “held” somehow. It is recommended to add a trigger on norm trigger and defining the source and the trigger level. For the purposes of this example it can be left as it is, as the trigger source is the U1 channel and the level equals 0.

That's how simple it is to measure voltage using Dewesoft X.

## DUAL-CORE mode

In the previous section a lot was said about proper amplifier measurement range selection. Now it's time to take a look at the impressive options offered by the dual core mode in the Sirius amplifiers. When using the Sirius dual-core mode it is possible to get a better resolution (less noise) at low amplitudes. That is solved with two 24-bit AD converters with different ranges on each channel.

The first AD converter has a full input channel range and the range of the second AD converter is only 5% of the full channel range. This technology measures the signal with low and a high gain simultaneously which means that the signal can be measured with a relatively high amplitude but at the same time it has a perfect resolution at low amplitudes of the same signal.

Let's take a look at the difference between dual core mode and normal mode when measuring low signals with a high range:

In this example a 0.3V DC signal from the calibrator on two ACC amplifiers will be measured. On both amplifiers, a 10V range will be chosen (which is complete nonsense) but it's the easiest way to see the difference between dual core mode on or off. This can be toggled in the channel setup where range can also be set.

On the first channel, we will turn Dual core mode off, on the second this mode will be turned on. This will render images as seen below, where the difference in the noise levels can be seen. The graphs that are seen below are set to have the same scale.

By the noise level, it's not hard to see where dual core mode is doing its job (right), and where it's turned off (left). With dual core mode turned on we get the same noise level in 10 V measurement range as it would be if we were using 0.5 V range. This gives us a better look at lower signals.

## Fun voltage measurement

Now it's time to do some practical voltage measurements and have some fun with that.

Also, it is important to emphasize how much DEWESoft X does autonomously to speed up the measuring experience.

As an example, a simple voltage measurement will be done on a discharging capacitor. Connected to the circuit are two capacitors with rectifying diodes as illustrated in the image below, these are then connected to the grid voltage between the L (live) and N (neutral) conductor cables. This type of connection allows the capacitors to charge with the peak voltage in both polarity directions. This yields around 700 V on both capacitors together. The instrument used in this example is the Sirius LV-HV, the HV channel is chosen for the higher voltages. For discharging the capacitors an input capacitance of 10 MΩ will be used on the module as the discharging resistor which will be connected to points IN+ and IN-.

The measurement yields the following result as shown in the image, where the capacitor is instantaneously charged and then discharges exponentially.

In this example the advantage of the dual core amplifier can be seen. For the voltage that is used the 1200 V measurement range must be taken to perform the measurement correctly, but the voltage on the capacitors fall very fast when they discharge, this will cause a noticeable noise level.

When the voltage drops under 50 V, meaning into the low voltage spectrum is when the dual core amplifier starts to shine, as it then switches over and starts measuring in the lower ranges, which greatly reduces the noise. This switch can be seen in the image below, it has been zoomed in to exactly where the switch takes place and the voltage drops under 50 V, and the second core then measures the lower voltage range.